Original source, credits text and photograph

India – The Hindu

Crouching Tiger, Hidden Data.

Content

The fourth national tiger survey has generated much euphoria, whereas the first one in 2006 had cast a pall of gloom. However, missing from all the four survey reports are details necessary to assess the reliability of the tiger numbers.

A brief history of India’s tiger censuses can shed some light on this issue. The tradition of reporting tiger numbers dates back to the 1970s. These numbers were based on the ‘pugmark census method’, which simple-mindedly assumed that the pugmarks of every tiger could be found, recognised and tallied.

As scientific critiques showed, these assumptions failed, rendering the numbers meaningless. However, the forest bureaucracy (the Ministry of Environment and allied institutions) ignored the problem for decades.

Commentary

India recently announced beautiful new tiger numbers. But since then the comments on the report and the real situation of Indian tiger conservancy are growing.

One of the main criticisms is about the used methodology. A beautiful video, even with the great and respected Sir David Attenborough starring, about explaining how India counted tigers now seems more and more as a decoy for the way India actually counted tigers.

This article shows that the Indian Government (Project Tiger – National Tiger Conservation Authority) is blocking any attempts to give insights on the counting itself.

It raises a lot of suspicion – fueled by comments of renown ecological statistical experts.

What has India to hide?

Tigers Count

Original source, credits text and photograph

India – Deccan Chronicle

More To Tigers Than Numbers.

Content

The latest report on tiger population is music to ears for conservationists in Kerala.

Officially, the country has doubled its tiger population in just over a decade — from a precarious 1,411 in 2006 to 2,967 in 2018.

India now has more than 75 per cent of the globe’s tigers trotting in the wild. The feel-good is justified as the national animal is faring well in most of the tiger range states despite several odds.

In Kerala, the population of big cats increased from 136 in 2014 to 190 in 2018.

Commentary

The chief forest conservator in Indian state Kerala (Pramod Krishnan) wants to express his pride for the Kerala tiger reserves.

On the other hand it distracts from the plausible points he is making on the future of Indian tiger reserves.

So please read and just look through the bragging about Kerala.

Odisha tiger

Original source, credits text and photograph

India – Odisha Bytes

Claws Out On Big Cat Count In Odisha.

Content

The recent tiger census showed a sorry figure for Odisha. While tiger numbers have increased in the country to 2,967 at present from 1,411 in 2006, there has been a decrease in Odisha

In 2002, there were 192 tigers in Similipal. Today, there are 28 tigers left in Odisha, according to the Ministry of Environment and Forest. This number has sparked a debate and the state government has decided to contest the census claim by doing its own survey.

Tigers were historically counted by pug-mark method — a technique invented in Odisha. Today, it is aided by camera-trap technology for more accurate estimation, explained Dr Biswajit Mohanty, Chairman of Greenpeace India.

 

 

Commentary

The numbers of tigers in Indian state Odisha are down, leading to finger pointing.
 
One points out to the methodology: the way of counting tigers must be wrong. Another points out that the protection of tigers is just a mess.

Bangla tiger

Original source, credits text and photograph

India – India Blooms

Low Male Tiger Population In Bangladesh, Worrisome: Official.

Content

A lower-than-expected population of male Royal Bengal tigers in the world’s largest mangrove forest has sparked fears about the long-term viability of the endangered species in Bangladesh, officials said here.

A poaching crackdown by authorities in the Bangladeshi part of Sundarbans mangroves saw an increase in the big cat population from 106 to 114 four years ago, according to a census published in May.

However, closer analysis of the data found that the number of male tigers was lower than the typical ratio of one male for every three tigresses, with the figure now at one male for every five females, officials said here on Wednesday.

Commentary

The male-female ratio of tigers in the Sundarbans in Bangladesh is getting to a critical point – with even a 10 percent count in the Sharonkhola range (2 out of 19).

The future of the tiger population in the Sundarbans could be at stake, if the forest continues to lose male tigers.

Tibet tiger

Original source, credits text and photograph

China, XinhuaNet

Signs Of Bengal Tigers Spotted In SW China.

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Commentary

Good news from Tibet: tigers spotted!
 
The Authorities with the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have spotted signs of Bengal tigers in what the Chinese say southwest China’s Tibet Autonomous Region.
 
The tigers were spotted already in January with one of the 48 camera traps installed.

Tiger census

Original source, credits text and photograph

​India – India Today

Decoding Tiger Census 2018: WII Scientist Explains Method, Talks About The Smaller Tiger Populations Gone Extinct.

Content

On International Tiger Day 2019, July 29, PM Narendra Modi released the tiger estimation figures in India and said that the country had achieved its target of doubling its number of tigers an incredible four years earlier than the given deadline. Now, India has 2,967 tigers – a reported growth of 33% in the fourth cycle of the Tiger Census which has been conducted every four years since 2006.

In 2006, the census showed that the number of tigers in India was only 1,411. In the next cycle of 2010, the numbers grew to 1,706, and in 2014, the tiger numbers grew to 2,226.

As per the Tiger Census of 2018, the state of Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers at 526. It is followed by Karnataka with 524 tigers and Uttarakhand at 442 tigers. However, the states of Chhattisgarh and Mizoram saw a decline in tiger numbers while Odisha maintained its population.

PM Modi said that today, India was one of the safest habits for tigers in the world. But is the picture really this rosy?

Commentary

Excellent interview with Yadvendradev Jhala , scientist with the Wildlife Institute of India, responisble for the executing of the recent tiger census in India.

It shows how the census was done (the methods used) but also that the NTCA is still failing in many areas.

Chhattisgarh TIGER RESERVE

Original source, credits text and photograph

The Indian Express

Title

Content

In the good news held out by the tiger census, one glaring black mark was Chhattisgarh, where the numbers have dropped to less than half — from 46 in 2014 to an estimated 19 in the 2018 audit. The state has three tiger reserves, Achanakmar, Udanti-Sitanadi and Indravati. While in the case of Indravati, officials can cite the reserve’s location — enumeration comes with challenges in Naxal-hit South Bastar’s Bijapur — for the low numbers, NTCA sources say the bigger reason is the lack of any core protected area in any of the three reserves, spread over 4,159 sq km.

Commentary

The Indian state of Chhattisgarh is a dark page in the recent tiger revival in India – with less than half of the tigers of the 2014 census.

Missing tigers

Original source, credits text and photograph

India – The Telegraph

Tiger Tiger Missing From Sight.

Content

In April 1992, the then field director of the Buxa Tiger Reserve, Pradeep Vyas, was preparing to hand over charge. “I was touring the core area and was crossing Rajabhatkhawa and going into Trolley Line, when I sighted some wild boars. Next I saw spotted deer and a good number of sambar deer,” recounts the retired forest official at his Calcutta residence. “Boars, spotted deer, sambars form the prey base of the tiger,” he adds.

Commentary

While India is cheering about the new tiger numbers the focus starts to get on what is not going well again. In this case the focus is on three tiger reserves where tigers have vanished from the jungles.
 
The article is about the causes, told by former officials.

Tiger problems Malaysia

Original source, credits text and photograph

Malay Mail

Malayan Perak State Parks Corporation: Only 23 tigers left in Royal Belum, Temenggor forest reserves.

Content

The Perak State Parks Corporation (PTNPk) estimates that there are only 23 tigers left in the Royal Belum and Temenggor forest reserves.

Its general manager Mohamed Shah Redza Hussein said the figure was about a 60 per cent drop from the over 60 tigers recorded in the two forest reserves seven years ago.

He said the biggest threat to the tiger population at the two habitats was poaching, believed to be done by foreigners especially from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia and aided by locals.

“If we do not act now, we will have less than 10 (tigers). A population this low is not enough for breeding.

Commentary

One of the biggest protected forests in Malaysia show a decline of 60 percent in 7 years – to 23 tigers.

The responsible director points the finger to poaching – not to himself after 7 years of ignoring problems.

Tiger census

Amid the regular distressing news of tiger deaths due to vehicular accidents and retaliatory killings, the findings of the “Status of Tigers in India-2018” report are heartening. In 2010, the Chinese Year of the Tiger, at the Tiger Summit in Saint Petersburg, India and the other 12 tiger range countries committed to doubling wild tiger numbers by 2022, the next Year of the Tiger. In 2010, the estimated wild tiger population in India was 1706; the latest corresponding figure is 2967, within sight of the target, and well in time. Collectively, the nation needs to celebrate. Since the last estimate of 2266 tigers in 2014, the report shows an impressive 31 per cent increase.

Although the report has its share of unanswered questions as well as grey areas of interpretation, we do not find any obvious discrepancies. Particularly impressive is the scientific rigour and the use of modern techniques of estimation. The methodology is as robust as it can be, using a combination of camera trap images, pug marks, tiger scats as well as habitat mapping. With a survey that covered 3,81,400 km of forested habitats in 20 tiger range states of India involving a foot survey of 5,22,996 km and camera traps deployed at 26,838 locations, one cannot question the robustness of the exercise. Most importantly, a total of 2,461 individual tigers were photo-captured. Thereafter, combining the estimated forest areas, grading them based on prey density and local ecology, the overall tiger population was anywhere between 2,603 to 3,346 with a standard error of approximately 12 per cent.

Devil tiger

India’s forests seem to be burning bright. The figures released by the National Tiger Conservation Authority have shown that the number of tigers in the wild in the country has witnessed an impressive rise of 33 per cent, the highest ever jump recorded between the quadrennial enumerations.

India, with nearly 3,000 wild tigers, accounts for 75 per cent of the global tiger population. The NTCA data also mean that India has met its goal of doubling the count of big cats years before the deadline. Perhaps this achievement prompted the prime minister to exult that the nation had kept its pledge.

Census tiger

Large, solitary predators hate being seen. They owe their entire existence to being able to avoid detection by prey and sneak close before attacking.

Hence, when we want to count tigers, the tigers don’t help. But accurate population numbers are fundamental to good conservation. Every four years since 2006, the Indian government conducts a national census of tigers and other wildlife.

The efforts the project team undertakes to derive the tiger population estimate are nothing short of phenomenal: 44,000 field staff conducted almost 318,000 habitat surveys across 20 tiger-occupied states of India. Some 381,400 km² was checked for tigers and their prey.

Dead tiger Bandhavgarh

At the same time that Madhya Pradesh was celebrating the conservation success of the Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve, three tigers have died in two days.

A tigress and her cub were found dead in Kalwa range of Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh ‘s Umaria district. The tigress and her cub died after a fight with a tiger, read a statement from Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve . The carcasses of the tigress and her cub were found on July 28, while the officials are in search for another cub of the tigress and the tiger, which attacked them.

The second incident took place near a village in Umariya range, where a 9-month-old young-adult tiger was killed by a male tiger.

MP tiger

Even though Madhya Pradesh has reported highest tiger population with 526 tigers, according to All India Tiger Estimation Report 2018 released on Monday, the state has lost 17781.588 acres of Very Dense Forest (VDF) and Moderately Dense Forest (MDF) in last four years, reveals the Forest Survey of India (FSI) report.

Between 2013 and 2015, the state lost 14,826.323 acres of land (60 sq km). Between 2015 and 2017, the state lost 2955.265 acres of forest land (12 sq km), the SFI report says.

Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in terms of forest area in the country, but the forest is constantly shrinking in the state, the report says.

In 2013, the state had 77,522 sq km forest area, which reduced to 77,462 sq km by 2015 – marking a loss of 60 sq km (14826.323 acres). And between 2015 and 2017, the state has lost 48 sq km (11,861 acres) of forest land and total forest area shrunk from 77, 462 to 77,414 sq km. 

Myanmar tiger

Hopes for the survival of Myanmar’s endangered tigers have been cautiously raised thanks to the discovery of three cubs over the past five years in a wildlife reserve in Sagaing Region.

In the course of a survey conducted by Wildlife Conservation Society-Myanmar (WCS-Myanmar) over the past five years, photographs of three tiger cubs were snapped by camera traps in the Tamanthi Wildlife Reserve, which lies on the eastern bank of the Chindwin River, across from the town of Tamanthi in Hkamti District of Sagaing Region.

“For around 15 years prior to 2015, the tiger population in Myanmar declined drastically. But fortunately, we have had three tigers born in the past five years,” WCS-Myanmar deputy director U Hla Naing told The Irrawaddy.

1 year old tiger

For the first time, the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) and National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) have included one-year-old tigers to arrive at the national figure. The All India Tiger Estimation (2018-2019) report released on Monday states that of the 2,967 tigers, the two agencies have photo images of 2,461 individuals of over one year of age.

The norm until 2014 was that cubs will not be enumerated as their mortality rate is high. Only sub-adults of over 1.5 years old used to be part of the census.

As per the NTCA, 1-year-old individuals are considered as cubs. Talking to TOI, NTCA member-secretary Anup Kumar Nayak said, “The tigers photo-captured must be above 1.5 years. I will have to check.”

TOI compared the census data released in 2014 and today. In 2014, it was clearly stated that tigers 1.5 and older were taken into account. Latest data shows 1 year and over.

Wildlife experts TOI spoke with feel that there might well be over 2,600 tigers. However, they expressed fears that despite habitat destruction and loss of occupancy by 17,881 sq km as per government data, “the steep rise of estimated 741 tigers from 2014 seems to be an extrapolation and too optimistic to be real”.

Leonardi Dicaprio tiger

Leonardo DiCaprio this morning posted an optimistic message applauding Thailand’s wildlife conservation efforts for World Tiger Day.

The Hollywood A-lister, who’s poured money into philanthropic efforts, cited the Thai government’s “long-term” collaboration with the Wildlife Conservation Society for their numbers “roaring back” by 60% at a central wildlife sanctuary.

“As a result, tiger numbers in the sanctuary have risen dramatically, from 41 in 2010-11 to 66 today,” DiCaprio wrote of Uthai Thani province’s Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary.

White tiger census

King George V tiger

In 2006, when the survey was first conducted, India had only 1,411 tigers and since then the population has increased at six per cent per annum, the survey said.

The numbers rose to 1,706 in 2010 and 2,226 in 2014, with India accounting for most of the 3,500 tigers scattered around the world.

India is now ascertained to be home to at least 70 percent of the world’s tigers.

Dead tiger

With around 3,000 tigers, India is one of the safest habitats for them in the world, that is what Prime Minister Narendra Modi said while releasing the results of All India Tiger Estimation on the occasion International Tiger Day. 

While there is no doubt that the number of tigers in the wild, which was once nearly on the brink of being wiped out has increased in recent years, the national animal is not out of danger yet.

With no natural predators in the wild, tigers face the biggest threat from humans. The ever increasing deforestation means the number of human-animal conflicts are also on the rise and more often than not it is the animals that are on the losing end.

Just in the past couple of days, there have been multiple cases where tigers were killed by humans.

Shuklaphanta National Park tiger

Although the park area is not sufficient in terms of the number of tigers it hosts, it is known as the protected area with the high density of tiger population in a small area.


“Although the tiger’s habitat is relatively smaller in terms of the area compared to the number of tigers found. There are many tigers here because of the adequate prey, ” Park’s conservation officer, Laxman Poudel, said.


Shuklaphanta park also hosts the largest herd of the swamp deer in the world. The population of swamp deer is over 2,200.


The Park organized a programme here to mark the 11th Tiger Day today where the speakers stressed on the need to protect the tiger.

India third tiger population

There’s no “lion” about this one.

India has reported a 33% increase in the tiger population — and it’s International Tiger Day.

Narendra Modi, prime minister of India, announced Monday that the country’s tiger population had increased to 2,967 as of 2018.

From numbers calculated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority, this was a 33% rise compared to the last tiger census in 2014.

95 % tiger

According to the World Wildlife Federation (WWF), there are only 3,900 wild tigers left in the world and since the beginning of the 20th century, 95 per cent of the world’s wild tiger population has disappeared.

July 29 is celebrated as Global Tiger Day or International Tiger Day to raise awareness for tiger conservation every year. It was created in 2010 at the Saint Petersburg Tiger Summit.

The goal of Global Tiger Day is to promote a worldwide system for protecting the national habitats of tigers and raise public awareness regarding tiger conservation issues.

VOA tiger

Tigers are one of the world’s endangered species.

India, however, is working hard to change that classification for its national animal.

In just four years, its tiger population has grown from 2,226 to 2,976.

In 2010, India’s tiger population was down to 1,400.

India is now one of the safest places in the world for tigers.

“Nine years ago, it was decided in Saint Petersburg (Russia) that the target of doubling the tiger population would be 2022,” Prime Minister Narendra Modi said Monday at the release of the All India Tiger Estimation Report 2018. “We in India completed this target four years in advance.”

Myanmar tige swimmingr

In 1903, a tigress prowling in the vicinity of Shwedagon Pagoda was shot and killed by a British soldier – an indication that there used to be plenty of tigers in Myanmar.

However, the country’s tiger population is decreasing and there are many difficulties in preserving the species.

The difficulty in preserving tigers is that there is an illegal wildlife market, shrinking habitat, and less food for tigers in the jungle,” said U Paing Soe, project manager of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).

The tigers are protected under the Biodiversity and Conservation of Protected Areas Law in Myanmar. Those convicted of poaching, killing, hurting, collecting and trading tigers face three to 10 years in prison.

However, there is a thriving black market for tiger products in Asia, including Myanmar, according to a report by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNOC).

Indian tiger numbers

With around 3,000 tigers, India has become “one of the safest habitats” for the big cats in the world, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said today as he released the All India Tiger Estimation Report 2018.

The population of tigers in India has increased from 1,400 in 2014 to 2,967 in 2018, according to the latest tiger census report. “The results of the just declared tiger census would make every Indian, every nature lover happy,” PM Modi said this morning.

“The story which started from ‘Ek Tha Tiger’ and reached to ‘Tiger Zinda hai’, shouldn’t end there,” he said, referring to the Salman Khan-starrer Bollywood movies in his address.

“Nine long years ago, it was decided in St. Petersburg that the target of doubling the tiger population would be 2022. We, in India, completed this target four years early,” PM Modi said.

China tigers

China is using cutting-edge technologies including Artificial Intelligence (AI) and big data to monitor endangered Amur tigers and leopards, experts said at the International Forum on Tiger and Leopard Transboundary Conservation in Harbin, Northeast China’s Heilongjiang Province on Sunday.

“Infrared cameras, AI and big data have helped us improve the establishment of a database of Amur tigers and leopards,” Jiang Guangshun, a deputy director of the Natural Forestry and Grassland Administration (NFGA), said at the forum.

“For example, the infrared camera can detect the tiger, and then AI will help analyze the tiger species, the weight and height, which will be marked in the database.”

Jiang noted the number of Amur tigers and leopards is increasing under the protection of China.

Daily Star tiger

Research estimates there are fewer than 4,000 of the big cats left in the wild. A century ago there were around 80,000.

The crisis is blamed on poachers and trophy hunters. Economic development is also a major factor in their decline because it ruins their habitat.

Campaigner Martin Hughes-Games has been studying the tiger count in India, which accounts for 60% of those left.

He said: “India is a country that’s industrialising incredibly fast. There are roads and railway lines and industries everywhere you look.

Tiger census

New Delhi India’s latest tiger count, to be released on Monday, which is also International Tiger Day, will likely show an increase in numbers of the big cat, National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and Wildlife Institute of India (WII) officials said, although some scientists and statisticians say questions around the accuracy of the methodology used — the same as in the previous count in 2014 — still persist.

The All India Tiger Estimation results for 2018 will be released on Monday by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, along with a report evaluating the effectiveness of tiger reserves.

There is an appreciable rise in tiger numbers with the same states as 2014 (Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Tamil Nadu) taking top positions, according to officials at WII, which collaborates with the NTCA on tiger estimation. “The year there has been an increase in camera coverage of tigers. It is a good thing,” said one of these officials who asked not to be named.

DNA tiger 4

Every year, since 2010, July 29 is celebrated as International Tiger Day to raise awareness about tiger conservation. India is home to over half of the world’s tigers. In 2010, India reportedly had 1,706 tigers, and this number increased to 2,226 in 2014. Isn’t a 30% increase in population in just four years remarkable? However, a study by an international team of researchers questioned the techniques used to estimate tiger populations in India and the accuracy of these numbers. Instead, they proposed a new mathematical model to determine tiger numbers accurately. Numbers drive most of the efforts and funds targeted at tiger conservation.

However, numbers do not necessarily mean healthy, hearty populations that can successfully breed and thrive for years to come. An alternative approach to monitoring tigers is to identify individuals and trace their health, family lineage and population. “Data generated from individuals can be used to estimate various parameters that help us understand the ecology, behaviour and evolutionary history of the populations,” says Prof Uma Ramakrishnan from the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Bengaluru.

“For instance, using the data on genetic variation, we can make inferences about connectivity between populations, changes in population size over time, inbreeding, assign parentage and so on,” she explains. Scientists use molecular techniques to get deeper insights into the lives of tigers, often without harming or disturbing them.